I'm assuming the C++ standard has the same behavior.
It does. From the C++ standard (2003) section 5.7:
When two pointers to elements of the same array object are subtracted, the result is the difference of the subscripts of the two array elements. The type of the result is an implementation-defined signed integral type; this type shall be the same type that is defined as ptrdiff_t in the <cstddef> header (18.1). As with any other arithmetic overflow, if the result does not fit in the space provided, the behavior is undefined. In other words, if the expressions P and Q point to, respectively, the i-th and j-th elements of an array object, the expression (P)-(Q) has the value i–j provided the value fits in an object of type ptrdiff_t.