Thread: No time improvement with multiple threads

  1. #16
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    Quote Originally Posted by Codeplug View Post
    >> My code does align the threads after each iteration using semaphores.
    Using a barrier to ensure all threads start "at the same time" is good.

    >> One timer is for how long each thread waits to start its next iteration
    After the start barrier, there shouldn't be any other synchronization if the threads really are completely independent of each other.

    The timer should start when the barrier releases the threads - and stop when all work has been completed. You should also set thread affinity to ensure that they are never scheduled on the same core. You can also make a "yield" call after the barrier (before the timer) to ensure that the thread/timer starts at the beginning of a new quantum.

    gg
    Thanks for the comments Codeplug. One note though, OS X does not support pthread_setaffinity_np() and according to this: https://developer.apple.com/library/...API/index.html
    it looks like OS X does this automatically at the kernel level.

    Also I am still at a loss on this one so any additional comments/thoughts are greatly appreciated!

  2. #17
    Registered User Codeplug's Avatar
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    One other thing to look out for is false-sharing. In this case you would want each thread's write locations (args->write) to be separated by at least a cacheline-size.

    gg

  3. #18
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    The assignment is now past due so I will post my code publicly (for a short while, lets say ~12hr) to allow others to take a good look. In the end I was getting some speed improvement but still not as much as I was expecting (compared to my professors executable). If anyone finds anything that will improve the performance please let me know, I still want to get this figured out.

    If you run the program without any arguments or wrong arguments it should display a "Usage" message that will explain how to use it.

    Thanks for everyones help!

    Code:
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <stdint.h>
    #include <stdbool.h>
    #include <pthread.h>
    #include <semaphore.h>
    #include <string.h>
    #include <limits.h>
    #include <float.h>
    #include <math.h>
    #include <errno.h>
    #include <time.h>
    
    
    #define SHARED 1
    
    
    typedefstruct args {
        uint32_t size;
        uint8_t num_threads;
        float lft;
        float top;
        float rgt;
        float btm;
        float eps;
    }Args;
    
    
    typedef struct threadargs {
        uint32_t size;
        float eps;
        uint32_t low;
        uint32_t high;
        float **read;
        float **write;
        uint8_t nt;
        uint8_t cur;
    }ThreadArgs;
    
    
    void print_args(Args args);
    void print_mat(uint32_t size, float **array);
    void sub_mat(uint32_t size, float **mat, float **a, float **b);
    float max_mat(uint32_t size, float **array);
    float min_mat(uint32_t size, float **array);
    void abs_mat(uint32_t size, float **mat, float **array);
    void cpy_mat(uint32_t size, float **a, float **b);
    
    
    void *avg_rows(void *a);
    sem_t *arrive, *go, *done;
    uint8_t num_arrived = 0;
    uint8_t num_complete = 0;
    
    
    bool debug = false;
    bool verbose = false;
    bool thread = false;
    
    
    int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    
    
        clock_t beg, end;
        float exec_time;
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /************************  setting all parameters for the matrix  ************************/
    
        uint8_t nflags = 0;
        if (argc < 2) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Usage:  ./jacobi <size> <num_threads> [ lft top rgt btm] [ eps ]\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    size:        width and height of the array\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    num_threads:    number of workers to use\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    lft:        value for each element in the left column\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    top:        value for each element in the top row\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    rgt:        value for each element in the right column\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    btm:        value for each element in the bottom row\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    eps:        value for epsilon\n");
    return1;
        }
        else if (strcmp(argv[1], "-d") == 0) {
            debug = true;
            nflags++;
        }
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "-t") == 0) {
            thread = true;
            nflags++;
        }
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "-dt") == 0) {
            debug = true;
            thread = true;
            nflags++;
        }
        if (strcmp(argv[1], "-d2") == 0) {
            debug = true;
            verbose = true;
            thread++;
            nflags++;
        }
        Args args;
        if (argc==(nflags+3)) {
            args.size = atoi(argv[nflags+1]);
            args.num_threads = atoi(argv[nflags+2]);
            args.lft = 1;
            args.top = 1;
            args.rgt = 80;
            args.btm = 80;
            args.eps = 0.1;
        }
        else if (argc==(nflags+4)) {
            args.eps = atof(argv[nflags+3]);
            args.lft = 1;
            args.top = 1;
            args.rgt = 80;
            args.btm = 80;
        }
        else if (argc==(nflags+7)) {
            args.lft = atof(argv[nflags+3]);
            args.top = atof(argv[nflags+4]);
            args.rgt = atof(argv[nflags+5]);
            args.btm = atof(argv[nflags+6]);
            args.eps = 0.1;
        }
        else if (argc==(nflags+8)) {
            args.lft = atof(argv[nflags+3]);
            args.top = atof(argv[nflags+4]);
            args.rgt = atof(argv[nflags+5]);
            args.btm = atof(argv[nflags+6]);
            args.eps = atof(argv[nflags+7]);
        }
    else {
            fprintf(stderr, "Usage:  ./jacobi <size> <num_threads> [ lft top rgt btm] [ eps ]\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    size:        width and height of the array\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    num_threads:    number of workers to use\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    lft:        value for each element in the left column\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    top:        value for each element in the top row\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    rgt:        value for each element in the right column\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    btm:        value for each element in the bottom row\n");
            fprintf(stderr, "    eps:        value for epsilon\n");
    return1;
        }
    /*********************  end setting parameter values for the matrix  *********************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /**************************  initializing read and write matrix  *************************/
        float **read = calloc(sizeof(float*)*(args.size+2), 1);
        float **write = calloc(sizeof(float*)*(args.size+2), 1);
        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < args.size+2; i++) {
            read[i] = calloc(sizeof(float)*(args.size+2), 1);
            write[i] = calloc(sizeof(float)*(args.size+2), 1);
        }
    
        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < args.size+2; i++) {
            read[i][0] = args.lft;
            read[i][args.size+1] = args.rgt;
            read[0][i] = args.top;
            read[args.size+1][i] = args.btm;
        }
        cpy_mat(args.size+2, write, read);
    /************************  end initializing read and write matrix  ***********************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /**********************  calculating nearest working thread number  **********************/
        if (args.num_threads > args.size)
            args.num_threads = args.size;
    
    
        args.num_threads = ceil(((float)args.size)/ceil(args.size/(float)args.num_threads));
        if (debug) {
            print_args(args);
            printf("Initial array:\n");
            print_mat(args.size+2, read);
        }
    /********************  end calculating nearest working thread number  ********************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /******************  initializing semaphore, args, and thread variables  *****************/
        pthread_attr_t tattr;
        pthread_t tid[args.num_threads];
        pthread_attr_init(&tattr);
        pthread_attr_setscope(&tattr, PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM);
    
    
        arrive = sem_open("arrive", O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0600, 1);
        if (arrive == SEM_FAILED)
            perror("arrive open error");
        go = sem_open("go", O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0600, 0);
        if (go == SEM_FAILED)
            perror("go open error");
        done = sem_open("complete", O_CREAT | O_EXCL, 0600, 1);
        if (done == SEM_FAILED)
            perror("write open error");
    /***************  end initializing semaphore, args, and thread variables  ****************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /*****************  initializing thread arguements and starting threads  *****************/
        uint32_t rem_rows = args.size;
        for (uint8_t i = 0; i < args.num_threads-1; i++) {
            ThreadArgs *thread_args = malloc(sizeof(ThreadArgs));
            thread_args->size = args.size;
            thread_args->eps = args.eps;
            thread_args->read = (float**)read;
            thread_args->write = (float**)write;
            thread_args->nt = args.num_threads;
            thread_args->low = args.size-rem_rows+1;
            thread_args->high = ceil(args.size/(float)args.num_threads)+thread_args->low-1;
            thread_args->cur = i;
            rem_rows -= thread_args->high-thread_args->low+1;
            pthread_create(&(tid[i]), &tattr, avg_rows, (void*)thread_args);
        }
        ThreadArgs *thread_args = malloc(sizeof(ThreadArgs));
        thread_args->size = args.size;
        thread_args->eps = args.eps;
        thread_args->read = (float**)read;
        thread_args->write = (float**)write;
        thread_args->nt = args.num_threads;
        thread_args->low = args.size-rem_rows+1;
        thread_args->high = args.size;
        thread_args->cur = args.num_threads-1;
        rem_rows = 0;    
    /***************  end initializing thread arguements and starting threads  ***************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /*********  start timer, start last thread, and wait for all threads to complete  ********/
        beg = clock();
        pthread_create(&(tid[args.num_threads-1]), &tattr, avg_rows, (void*)thread_args);
        uint16_t *iters[args.num_threads];
        for (int i = 0; i < args.num_threads; i++)
            pthread_join(tid[i], &(iters[i]));
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
        end = clock();
    /*************************  end timer and all threads completed  *************************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
        if (debug) {
            printf("Final array:\n");
            print_mat(args.size+2, read);
        }
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /*********************************  clean up semaphores  *********************************/
        if (sem_close(arrive) != 0)
            perror("close arrive");
        if (sem_close(go) != 0)
            perror("close go");
        if (sem_close(done) != 0)
            perror("close complete");
        if (sem_unlink("arrive") != 0)
            perror("unlink arrive");
        if (sem_unlink("go") != 0)
            perror("unlink go");
        if (sem_unlink("complete") != 0)
            perror("unlink complete");
    /*******************************  end clean up semaphores  *******************************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
    
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    /********************************  write results to file  ********************************/
        FILE *out = fopen("jacobi_c.out", "w");
        fprintf(out, "Arguments:\n");
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%u\n", "size", args.size);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%u\n", "threads", args.num_threads);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%.4f\n", "left", args.lft);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%.4f\n", "top", args.top);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%.4f\n", "right", args.rgt);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%.4f\n", "bottom", args.btm);
        fprintf(out, "    %s:\t%.4f\n", "epsilon", args.eps);
        fprintf(out, "\n\nFinal Grid:\n");
        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < args.size+2; i++) {
            for (uint32_t j = 0; j < args.size+2; j++)
                fprintf(out, "%9.4f", read[i][j]);
            fprintf(out, "\n\n");
        }
        fclose(out);
    /*****************************  end writing results to file  *****************************/
    /*****************************************************************************************/
    
    
        exec_time = ((double)(end-beg))/CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
        printf("total threads: %u\n", args.num_threads);
        for (uint8_t i = 0; i < args.num_threads; i++)
            printf("thread %u iterations: %u\n", i, *iters[i]);
        printf("execution time: %us %u\xC2\xB5s\n", (uint32_t)exec_time, ((uint32_t)(exec_time*1000000))%1000000);
    }
    
    
    void print_args(Args args) {
        printf("Arguments:\n");
        printf("    %s:\t%u\n", "size", args.size);
        printf("    %s:\t%u\n", "threads", args.num_threads);
        printf("    %s:\t%.4f\n", "left", args.lft);
        printf("    %s:\t%.4f\n", "top", args.top);
        printf("    %s:\t%.4f\n", "right", args.rgt);
        printf("    %s:\t%.4f\n", "bottom", args.btm);
        printf("    %s:\t%.4f\n", "eps", args.eps);
    }
    
    
    void print_mat(uint32_t size, float **array) {
        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < size; i++) {
            for (uint32_t j = 0; j < size; j++)
                printf("%9.4f", array[i][j]);
            printf("\n\n");
        }
    }
    
    
    void cpy_mat(uint32_t size, float **a, float **b) {
        for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
            memcpy(a[i], b[i], sizeof(float)*size);
    }
    
    
    void *avg_rows(void *a) {
    
    
        float exec_time;
        float wait_time;
        float totl_time;
    
    
        totl_time = clock();
    
    
        ThreadArgs *args = a;
        uint16_t count = 0;
    
    
        float max_dif = args->eps+1;
        float dif = 0;
    
    
        sem_wait(done);
        if (thread) {
            printf("Thread Args:\n");
            printf("    low: %u\n", args->low);
            printf("    high: %u\n", args->high);
            printf("    thread: %u\n", args->cur);
        }
        sem_post(done);
    
    
        for (; max_dif > args->eps && count < 500; count++) {
    
            max_dif = 0;
    //arriving at next iteration
            exec_time = (float)clock();
    
    
            if (sem_wait(arrive) != 0)
                perror("arrive wait error");
    
    
            wait_time = ((float)clock()-exec_time)/CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
            if (thread) printf("thread %u: wait_time = %us %u\xC2\xB5s\n", args->cur, (uint32_t)wait_time, ((uint32_t)(wait_time*1000000))%1000000);
    
    
            num_arrived++;
    
    
    if (thread) printf("thread %u: process has arrived\n", args->cur);
            if (num_arrived==(args->nt-num_complete)) {
    if (thread) printf("thread %u: all processes are here\n", args->cur);
                if (thread) printf("thread %u: remaining = %u\n", args->cur, args->nt-num_complete);
                cpy_mat(args->size+2, args->read, args->write);
                sem_wait(done);
                for (uint8_t i = 0; i < (args->nt-num_complete); i++) {
                    if (sem_post(go) != 0)
                        perror("go post error");
                }
                num_arrived = 0;
                sem_post(done);
            }
            if (sem_post(arrive) != 0)
                perror("arrive post error");
    //end arriving at net iteration
    
    
            if (thread) printf("thread %u: waiting for go...\n", args->cur);
    
    
            if (sem_wait(go) != 0)
                perror("go wait error");
    
    
    //calculate the averages into write
    
    
            exec_time = clock();
    
    
            for (uint32_t i = args->low; i < args->high+1; i++) {
                if (thread) printf("thread %u: low = %u, high = %u, cur = %u\n", args->cur, args->low, args->high, i);
                for (uint32_t j = 1; j < args->size+1; j++) {
                    args->write[i][j] = (args->read[i-1][j]+args->read[i+1][j]+args->read[i][j-1]+args->read[i][j+1])*.25;
                }
            }
            for (uint32_t i = args->low; i < args->high+1; i++) {
                for (uint32_t j = 1; j < args->size+1; j++) {
                    dif = fabs(args->write[i][j]-args->read[i][j]);
                    if (dif > max_dif) max_dif = dif;
                }
            }
    
    
    
            exec_time = ((float)clock()-exec_time)/CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
            if (thread) printf("thread %u: exec_time =  %us %u\xC2\xB5s\n", args->cur, (uint32_t)exec_time, ((uint32_t)(exec_time*1000000))%1000000);
    
            if (thread) printf("thread %u: max delta  =  %.4f\n", args->cur, max_dif);
        }
    
        sem_wait(done);
        num_complete++;
        if (thread) printf("thread %u: completed = %u\n", args->cur, num_complete);
        if (num_arrived==(args->nt-num_complete)) {
    if (thread) printf("thread %u: all processes are here\n", args->cur);
            if (thread) printf("thread %u: remaining = %u\n", args->cur, args->nt-num_complete);
            cpy_mat(args->size+2, args->read, args->write);
            for (uint8_t i = 0; i < (args->nt-num_complete); i++) {
                if (sem_post(go) != 0)
                    perror("go post error");
            }
            num_arrived = 0;
        }
        sem_post(done);
    
    
        uint16_t *niters = calloc(sizeof(uint16_t), 1);
        *niters = count;
        if (thread) printf("thread %u: iterations =  %u\n", args->cur, *niters);
    
    
        totl_time = ((float)clock()-totl_time)/CLOCKS_PER_SEC;
        if (thread) printf("thread %u: totl_time = %us %u\xC2\xB5s\n", args->cur, (uint32_t)totl_time, ((uint32_t)(totl_time*1000000))%1000000);
    
    
        return (void*)niters;
    }

  4. #19
    Registered User Codeplug's Avatar
    Join Date
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    Couple things I see without digging too deap:

    Using inter-process semaphores, instead of intra-process pthread synchronization primitives are going to cost you more.

    Including printf's in your timings are going to cost you.

    clock() isn't the best tool in the tool box, unless you're using work-loads that take minutes - so that any inaccuracies of clock() are washed out. "clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME)" would be better.

    gg

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