# Keywords searching in the extern English txt

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• 12-16-2012
c99tutorial
Quote:

Originally Posted by maestorm
But I don't need to find specific keywords, I need to find keywords which are most repeated in English text, text is with accents, I need to compare these words and print on screen 10 most repeated (I mean words, not conjunctions).

You need to define the problem more precisely. Suppose you have the following text

a b c aa a b c bb a b c cc a b c aaa a b c bbb a b c ccc

And the words a, b, c, aa, bb, cc, ... are words in English. Which of those words are "the most common" in the text? One way might be to make a list of each word encountered in the text along with a count

a: 6
b: 6
c: 6
aa: 1
...

Then you can sort the list in order of decreasing occurence.

Also, you need to clarify what you mean by accents and conjunctions. If you have this text

a b c à b c á b c

Then you have only to decide how you wish to count the different variants of a. Are they all the same word? Or they each distinct words? The same with conjunctions.

it's it is don't do not

I would count that as 6 distinct and different words: "it's" != "it is". How else would you do it?
• 12-16-2012
Nominal Animal
Since you expect accents, and will need to be able to differentiate between letters and non-letters in non-C locales, you need wide-character support. The ASCII character set, the C/POSIX locale, does not recognize any accented letters at all, you see.

I do think this thread has degenerated to the "send me teh codez, pls" level, but I'll happily throw you into the deep end just in case I happen to be wrong.

The following is a simple C99 wide-character "word" frequency counter program. It takes at least one command-line parameter, the minimum frequency to report (may be 0 to report all "words" it encounters). If you specify further parameters, they're assumed to be file names to be read. Otherwise the program will read the input from standard input.

Each "word" is a sequence starting with an alphabetic character (either at the start of the file, or following a non-alphabetic character), up to the final alphabetic character prior to a whitespace. Between the first and last alphabetic characters, everything except whitespace is accepted as part of the "word". Thus, these "words" include non-ASCII strings and names like "Nöminâl-Amí" as well as English contractions like "it'd" (which it thinks is different than "it" and "would"). It also converts everything to lower case before comparison.

The main work is done in a function which reads words into a buffer, continouously hashing the input, then looking the words up in a dynamically-resized hash table. (It uses the XOR variant of the Bernstein hash; see the unused static inline wcshash() function near the top of the code. It is open-coded in the word read function, as it is such a simple hash function.)

I wrote this out of sheer boredom, so there likely are bugs lurking in there; I've only lightly tested it, after all. I know there are lots of sillinesses there; can you spot any?
Code:

```#include <stdlib.h> #include <locale.h> #include <string.h> #include <wchar.h> #include <wctype.h> #include <errno.h> #include <stdio.h> /* Hash type.  * The hashing function is the XOR variant of Bernstein hash.  * Note: the line read function contains an open-coded copy. */ typedef unsigned long  hash_t; static inline hash_t  wcshash(const wchar_t *string) {     hash_t  h = 0UL;     if (string)         while (*string != L'\0')             h = (33UL * h) ^ (unsigned long)(*(string++));     return h; } /* Hash table entry type. */ struct hash_entry {     /* Words form a linked list in ascending order of hash. */     struct hash_entry    *next;     hash_t                hash;     /* Number of occurrences. */     unsigned long        hits;     /* Length in characters, and data. */     size_t                size;     wchar_t              data[]; }; /* Hash table. */ struct hash_entry      **hash_table = NULL; size_t                    hash_table_size = 0; size_t                    hash_table_used = 0; /* Resize hash table. */ int hash_table_resize(const size_t  size) {     struct hash_entry **table, **pptr, *next;     size_t              used = 0, i;     /* Invalid size? */     if (size < 2)         return errno = EINVAL;     /* Allocate new table. */     table = malloc(size * sizeof *table);     if (!table)         return errno = ENOMEM;     /* Initialize table to all NULL pointers. */     i = size; while (i-- > 0)         table[i] = NULL;     /* Scan existing hash table. */     for (i = 0; i < hash_table_size; i++) {         struct hash_entry *list = hash_table[i];         while (list) {             struct hash_entry *const curr = list;             list = list->next;             /* Locate correct point to insert into. */             pptr = &(table[curr->hash % size]);             next = table[curr->hash % size];             while (next && next->hash < curr->hash) {                 pptr = &(next->next);                 next = next->next;             }             /* Insert. */             curr->next = next;             *pptr = curr;             used++;         }     }     /* Discard current hash table. */     free(hash_table);     /* Update. */     hash_table = table;     hash_table_size = size;     hash_table_used = used;     /* Done. */     return 0; } /* Add entry to hash table.  * If it already exists, return a pointer to the existing entry. */ struct hash_entry *hash_table_add(const hash_t hash, const wchar_t *const data, const size_t size) {     struct hash_entry **pptr, *next, *curr;     /* Nothing to add? */     if (!data || size < 1) {         errno = EINVAL;         return NULL;     }     /* Resize hash table if necessary. */     if (hash_table_used >= hash_table_size) {         if (hash_table_size < 48) {             if (hash_table_resize((hash_table_used | 15) + 1))                 return NULL;         } else         if (hash_table_resize((3 * hash_table_used) / 2))             return NULL;     }     /* Locate hash entry. */     pptr = &(hash_table[hash % hash_table_size]);     next = hash_table[hash % hash_table_size];     while (next && next->hash < hash) {         pptr = &(next->next);         next = next->next;     }     /* Match? */     if (next && next->hash == hash && next->size == size && !wmemcmp(data, next->data, size)) {         next->hits++;         return next;     }     /* Create new entry. */     curr = malloc(sizeof (struct hash_entry) + (size + 1) * sizeof (wchar_t));     if (!curr) {         errno = ENOMEM;         return NULL;     }     /* Initialize fields. */     curr->hash = hash;     curr->hits = 1UL;     curr->size = size;     wmemcpy(curr->data, data, size);     curr->data[size] = L'\0';     /* Insert. */     curr->next = next;     *pptr = curr;     /* Update used count. */     hash_table_used++;     /* Success. */     return curr; } int process(const char *const filename, FILE *const in) {     wchar_t  *data;     hash_t    hash_used;    /* Hash using the first 'used' characters */     hash_t    hash_last;    /* Hash using the first 'last' characters */     size_t    last;        /* Last alphanumeric seen */     size_t    size;        /* Allocated */     size_t    used;        /* Used */     wint_t    c;     if (fwide(in, 1) < 0) {         fprintf(stderr, "%s: Cannot process as wide-character input.\n", filename);         return 1;     }     /* Allocate an initial buffer. */     size = 1022;     data = malloc((size + 2) * sizeof *data);     if (!data) {         fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s.\n", filename, strerror(ENOMEM));         return 1;     }     /* Input loop. */     c = fgetwc(in);     while (1) {         /* Skip until first alphanumeric character. */         while (c != WEOF && !iswalpha(c))             c = fgetwc(in);         /* End of input? */         if (c == WEOF)             break;         /* Clear buffer. */         hash_used = hash_last = 5381UL;         last = used = 0;         /* Word loop. */         while (c != WEOF && !iswspace(c)) {             /* Need to grow buffer? */             if (used >= size) {                 /* Any heuristic that will be >used will work. */                 const size_t  temp_size = (((used * 3) / 2) | 1023) + 993;                 wchar_t      *temp_data;                 temp_data = realloc(data, (2 + temp_size) * sizeof *data);                 if (!temp_data) {                     fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s.\n", filename, strerror(ENOMEM));                     free(data);                     return 1;                 }                 data = temp_data;                 size = temp_size;             }             /* Add to buffer and hash. */             if (iswalnum(c)) {                 c = towlower(c);                 data[used++] = c;                 last = used;                 hash_last = hash_used = (hash_used * (hash_t)33) ^ (hash_t)c;             } else {                 data[used++] = c;                 hash_used = (hash_used * (hash_t)33) ^ (hash_t)c;             }             c = fgetwc(in);         }         /* Terminate, just to be certain. */         data[last] = L'\0';         /* We only include the word from the first alphanumeric to last alphanumeric,         * including all punctuation etc. only if no spaces. */         if (last > 0)             if (!hash_table_add(hash_last, data, last)) {                 const char *const errmsg = strerror(errno);                 fprintf(stderr, "%s: Cannot add word to hash table: %s.\n", filename, errmsg);                 free(data);                 return 1;             }         /* Fall through to skipping until next alphanumeric. */     }     /* Error in input? */     if (c == WEOF && errno == EILSEQ) {         fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s.\n", filename, strerror(EILSEQ));         free(data);         return 1;     } else     if (ferror(in) || !feof(in)) {         fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s.\n", filename, strerror(EIO));         free(data);         return 1;     }     /* Discard data buffer. */     free(data);     /* Success. */     return 0; } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {     unsigned long  n;     char            dummy;     int            arg;     FILE          *in;     setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");     if (argc < 2 || !strcmp(argv[1], "-h") || !strcmp(argv[1], "--help")) {         fprintf(stderr, "\n");         fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s [ -h | --help ]\n", argv[0]);         fprintf(stderr, "      %s N [ FILENAME ... ]\n", argv[0]);         fprintf(stderr, "\n");         fprintf(stderr, "This program will read the specified files,\n");         fprintf(stderr, "or standard input if none (or -) specified,\n");         fprintf(stderr, "and output all words occurring at least N times.\n");         fprintf(stderr, "\n");         return 1;     }     if (sscanf(argv[1], " %lu %c", &n, &dummy) != 1) {         fprintf(stderr, "%s: Invalid number of occurrences.\n", argv[1]);         return 1;     }     if (argc > 2) {         for (arg = 2; arg < argc; arg++)             if (!strcmp(argv[arg], "-")) {                 if (process("(standard input)", stdin))                     return 1;             } else {                 in = fopen(argv[arg], "rb");                 if (!in) {                     const char *const errmsg = strerror(errno);                     fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s.\n", argv[arg], errmsg);                     return 1;                 }                 if (process(argv[arg], in)) {                     fclose(in);                     return 1;                 }                 if (fclose(in)) {                     fprintf(stderr, "%s: Read error.\n", argv[arg]);                     return 1;                 }             }     } else {         if (process("(standard input)", stdin))             return 1;     }     /* Output all hashed strings with at least n hits. */     {         size_t  i;         for (i = 0; i < hash_table_size; i++) {             struct hash_entry *list = hash_table[i];             while (list) {                 struct hash_entry *const curr = list;                 list = list->next;                 if (curr->hits >= n)                     printf("%ls: %lu occurrences\n", curr->data, curr->hits);             }         }         fflush(stdout);     }     return 0; }```
If you wish me to expand on any specific detail in above, I'd be happy to, but I won't bother trying to explain everything from top to bottom.

Also, I deliberately output the word frequencies in random order. The data structures allow you to very easily detach the words from the hash table and sort them according to frequencies, but I feared that if I included that, you'd simply submit the code as your own, without any real effort on your part.

Finally, it is C99 code, so don't expect it to compile on a C89 (ANSI C) or a C++ compiler. It can quite easily be made compatible to both; I chose not to (to make it just a bit more difficult to submit as homework, verbatim).
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