View Full Version : reading math symbols

i've been reading Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra (http://www.math.miami.edu/~ec/book/) for a cryptology report.

i have a basic highschool education in algebra, geometry, and a little trig.

anyway i'm seeing lots of symbols i've never seen before.

i cant cut and paste them :(.

anyone know the names of these symbols or something i can use to find out more about them?

Thantos

08-07-2003, 09:03 PM

Most likely if you don't know what a symbol is you should take a class that covers that level of math.

ZerOrDie

08-07-2003, 10:21 PM

take university level discrete math and linear algebra

Silvercord

08-07-2003, 10:41 PM

the big funky E is the summation operator where you just add elements of an array together

the ~ means approximately equal to (i.e trying to assign a value to an irrational number)

the small e is the only number (rational or irrational, e is irrational) where the derivative of e^x is e^x (I think that's how it goes)

e is:

2.718281828459045235360287471352662497757247093699 95957

and those are the first 3 relevant symbols I could think of that might be in your book

MrWizard

08-07-2003, 10:44 PM

What symbols specifically? Can you point me to a chapter at least?

adrianxw

08-08-2003, 03:07 AM

A good number of the operators are described in the first pages of chapter 1.

logic and discrete mathematics - a computer science perspective, i read it in maths in the first of uni. I forget the author but its a good book

in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.

there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.

and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand. :confused:

Perspective

08-08-2003, 10:07 AM

Originally posted by Nor

in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.

there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.

and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand. :confused:

upside down 'U' : think of it as an 'and'

rightside up 'U' : think of it as an 'or'

small 'E' : 'element of'

backwards 'E' : 'there exists'

upside down 'A': 'for all'

and the ' : 'not' (negation)

>> {x: E A and x E B"}

assuming the E's are small this means x is an element of A and x is an element of B.

if you want better descriptions, look up "set theory" or "set notation"

edit: edited stuff

thank you so very much.

also just found a book about the subject.

Schaum's Outline of Discrete Mathematics (amazon.com)

should be here within the next week

http://www.sosmath.com/algebra/inequalities/ineq02/ineq02.html

http://www.shu.edu/projects/reals/logic/notation.html

http://directory.google.com/Top/Science/Math/Logic_and_Foundations/Set_Theory/?il=1

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