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Nor
08-07-2003, 08:58 PM
i've been reading Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra (http://www.math.miami.edu/~ec/book/) for a cryptology report.
i have a basic highschool education in algebra, geometry, and a little trig.

anyway i'm seeing lots of symbols i've never seen before.
i cant cut and paste them :(.

anyone know the names of these symbols or something i can use to find out more about them?

Thantos
08-07-2003, 09:03 PM
Most likely if you don't know what a symbol is you should take a class that covers that level of math.

ZerOrDie
08-07-2003, 10:21 PM
take university level discrete math and linear algebra

Silvercord
08-07-2003, 10:41 PM
the big funky E is the summation operator where you just add elements of an array together
the ~ means approximately equal to (i.e trying to assign a value to an irrational number)
the small e is the only number (rational or irrational, e is irrational) where the derivative of e^x is e^x (I think that's how it goes)

e is:
2.718281828459045235360287471352662497757247093699 95957

and those are the first 3 relevant symbols I could think of that might be in your book

MrWizard
08-07-2003, 10:44 PM
What symbols specifically? Can you point me to a chapter at least?

adrianxw
08-08-2003, 03:07 AM
A good number of the operators are described in the first pages of chapter 1.

iain
08-08-2003, 06:23 AM
logic and discrete mathematics - a computer science perspective, i read it in maths in the first of uni. I forget the author but its a good book

Nor
08-08-2003, 09:54 AM
in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.
there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.
and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand. :confused:

Perspective
08-08-2003, 10:07 AM
Originally posted by Nor
in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.
there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.
and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand. :confused:



upside down 'U' : think of it as an 'and'
rightside up 'U' : think of it as an 'or'
small 'E' : 'element of'
backwards 'E' : 'there exists'
upside down 'A': 'for all'
and the ' : 'not' (negation)


>> {x: E A and x E B"}

assuming the E's are small this means x is an element of A and x is an element of B.

if you want better descriptions, look up "set theory" or "set notation"

edit: edited stuff

Nor
08-08-2003, 10:13 AM
thank you so very much.
also just found a book about the subject.
Schaum's Outline of Discrete Mathematics (amazon.com)
should be here within the next week
http://www.sosmath.com/algebra/inequalities/ineq02/ineq02.html
http://www.shu.edu/projects/reals/logic/notation.html
http://directory.google.com/Top/Science/Math/Logic_and_Foundations/Set_Theory/?il=1