Mostly links here, with a warning about multi-media timers:
High frequency counter (the rate varies depending on your system), but it's a read only interface (can't be used to set events or call functions).
Multi-media timers. Mult-media timers can be use to set an event or call a function. The stated resolution is 1 milli-second, but on all the systems I've test the actual frequency is 1024hz which is compensated for with periodic longer delays by including an extra "tick" every 42nd, 84th, and 125th tick boundary, resulting in 128 ticks at 1024hz every 125 events or call backs, which takes 125 milli-seconds to end back up at the stated 1 milli-second resolution.