Random but Unique Numbers

This is a discussion on Random but Unique Numbers within the C++ Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hi i have a program that shows up random numbers here is the code that does this Code: #include <iostream> ...

  1. #1
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    Random but Unique Numbers

    Hi

    i have a program that shows up random numbers here is the code that does this

    Code:
    #include <iostream>
    #include<cstdlib>
    #include <ctime>
    
    using namespace std;
    
    int main ()
    {
    
            srand((unsigned)time(NULL));
            int Rand[10]={0};
    
            for(int i=0;i<10;++i)
            {
                    Rand[i]=rand()&#37;11+1;
    
                    cout<<Rand[i]<<endl;
            }
    
            cin.get();
    }
    at the moment i get duplicate numbers. how can i get the program to check each number and if it is the same change it to another one so there are no duplicate numbers?

    Thanks
    Last edited by peckitt99; 11-14-2007 at 03:07 AM.

  2. #2
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    Two ways:
    1. Generate a list of numbers and use STL's random_shuffle(). http://cppreference.com/cppalgorithm...m_shuffle.html

    2. Keep an array of booleans that is the size of the random numbers that is initialized to false, then set to true when a number is taken. If the entry is already true, take another number.

    --
    Mats
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  3. #3
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    is there any chance of an example of a boolean array - the reason i am asking this is because i need to create 2 random numbers like co-ordinates. and cant have any duplicates

  4. #4
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    Code:
    bool array[10];
    Is that what you were looking for?

    --
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  5. #5
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    yes - could you provide an example of how it can be used? obviously you not have to do it on my program - its just i havent used one before so i dont know how it works

  6. #6
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    bool is a type that can [1] hold two values "false" and "true".

    Say you want to know if you've seen a number before or not, in the range 0..9:
    Code:
    int main()
    {
        int x;
        bool arr[10];
    
        for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++) arr[i] = false;
        cout << "Type a number 0..9 (or -999 to exit):";
        for(;;) {
           cin >> x;
           if (x == -999) break;
           if (x > 9 || x < 0) {
              cout << "Invalid number, try again with 0..9:" << endl;
           }
           else 
           {
              if (arr[x]) {
                  cout << "Already typed " << x << endl;
              } 
              else 
              {
                   arr[x] = true;
              }
           }
        }
    }
    The above example has not been compiled, and is under no circumstances supposed to be a complete and fool-proof piece of code - but an example of how to use an array of boolean to indicate if something has been used or not?

    --
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  7. #7
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    ok thanks - ill work with this and see if i can implement it into my random number generator.

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    well i have had a go - it might be completely wrong but i there are a few things that i am not sure about - if it is completely wrong please let me know where i am going wrong

    here is my new updated code

    Code:
    int main ()
    {
            bool arr[10];
            for(int j = 0; j < 10; j++) arr[j] = false;
    
            srand((unsigned)time(NULL)); // seed random number generator with system time
            int MyRand[10]={0}; // an array to store our random values;
    
              if (arr[MyRand[10]])
              {
                //not sure what to put here
              }
    
              else
              {
                    arr[MyRand[10]] = true;
            
                    for(int i=0; i<10; ++i)
                    {
                            MyRand[i]=rand()&#37;11+1; // get random number between 1 and 40 and store in array
                            cout<<MyRand[i]<<endl;
                    }
              }
    
    
            cin.get();
    
    }
    there is an error also which is a access voilation at this line

    Code:
    arr[MyRand[10]] = true;

  9. #9
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    The error is because when you make an array, the first index is 0 (the number that goes in the [ ]). So an array of 10 would have indexes of 0 through 9.

    Also, you were on the right track the first time when it came up with duplicate numbers. You don't have to redo your entire code, only insert a few things.

  10. #10
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    ah right i see - well ill have another look - its confusing me and i bet it is something really simple :S

  11. #11
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    Code:
                            MyRand[i]=rand()&#37;11+1; // get random number between 1 and 40 and store in array
    There are 3 bugs on this line. (Or 4 if you count the usage of % with rand)
    1. An off by one error since MyRand starts at 0 and the expression has a minimum of 1.
    2. Another off by one error since the right hand side generates numbers between 1 and 11 but the array only holds 10 items.
    3. The comment is wrong.

    So you're actually overstepping the bounds by 2 on that line.
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  12. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by iMalc View Post
    There are 3 bugs on this line. (Or 4 if you count the usage of % with rand)
    1. An off by one error since MyRand starts at 0 and the expression has a minimum of 1.
    2. Another off by one error since the right hand side generates numbers between 1 and 11 but the array only holds 10 items.
    3. The comment is wrong.

    So you're actually overstepping the bounds by 2 on that line.
    No, he's indexing MyRand[i], and i goes from 0 to 9, so that's all fine. The random numbers are just values, not array indexes.

  13. #13
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    Are you trying to get a random number between 1 and 40 or 1 and 10?

    If it's 1 and 10, then it looks like you really should be using matsp's first suggestion of random_shuffle. Even for 1 in 40 I'd probably use that method as well.

    Using random_shuffle makes sense when the range of numbers that you can pick from is not much bigger than the number of numbers you want to pick.

    If you want 10 random numbers in the range of [1, 40], then create an array (or vector) that holds the numbers 1 through 40. Then call random_shuffle on the array. The first ten numbers in the array are now your 10 random (but unique) numbers.

    This probably doesn't take up any more space than the bool array, but it might end up calling rand() a few more times internally (then again, with the bool array your worst case is infinite calls to rand()).

    If the range is really large, then I would use a set (or hash_set) to store the already chosen numbers. That's because the bool array would get too big.

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