Multi-Dimensional Array Question

This is a discussion on Multi-Dimensional Array Question within the C++ Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hello, I am making a simple tic tac toe game, with no AI, it's just for two players. I decided ...

  1. #1
    Registered User LiNeAr's Avatar
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    Multi-Dimensional Array Question

    Hello, I am making a simple tic tac toe game, with no AI, it's just for two players. I decided to use a 2 dimensional array for the board. What I want to do is output the board so the player can see it. But would I have to type out each slot so the user can see it, or can I show the whole array to player. LIke this:

    Code:
    void gBoard()
    {
         system("CLS");
         int board[3][3]={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
         cout << board[1][1];
         cout << board[1][2];
         cout << board[1][3];
    
    }
    Would I have to keep going like cout << board[1][1], or could I just show the whole board. Please tell me how.

  2. #2
    VA National Guard The Brain's Avatar
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    With arrays.. you should always try to take advantage of using loops.. many ways you could tackle this problem.. here is one perspective. Take a look at load_grid( ) and see how I used loops to handle loading the bars into the array. I could have used nested for loops... but I decided just to hard code one dimenstion and then use a loop counter to increment through the second dimension (thus loading the grid into the 2D array 'line at a time')

    Code:
    #include<iostream>
    #include<cstdlib>
    #include<iomanip>
    #include<cctype>
    using namespace std;
    
    
    class TicTac
    {
    
    public:
    
    	TicTac();
    	void load_grid();
    	void display_grid();
    	void prompt_player();
    	void update_grid();	
    	void set_turn();
    	bool check_winner();
    	void reset();
    
    private:
    
    	char grid[5][6];
    	char square;
    	int  turn;	
    	int  turn_counter;
    	bool tie;
    };
    
    
    char again();
    
    int main()
    {
    	TicTac Toe;
    
    	Toe.load_grid();
    
    	do{
    		Toe.reset();		
    
    		Toe.display_grid();
    
    		do{	
    			Toe.prompt_player();			
    	
    			Toe.update_grid();	
    			
    			Toe.set_turn();
    
    			Toe.display_grid();			
    
    		}while(!Toe.check_winner());	 
    
    	}while(again()!='N');
    
    	return 0;
    }
    
    
    
    //FUNCTION DEFINITIONS
    
    TicTac::TicTac()
    {
    	for(int row=0; row<5; row++)
    		for(int column=0; column<5; column++)
    
    			grid[row][column]='0';
    
    	turn	= 1;
    	tie     = 0;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::load_grid()
    {
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row+=2)
    	
    		grid[row][1]=grid[row][3]=(char)179;
    
    	for(row=1;row<4;row+=2)
    
    		grid[row][0]=grid[row][1]=grid[row][2]=grid[row][3]=grid[row][4]=(char)196;
    
    	for(row=0;row<6;row++)
    
    		grid[row][5]='\0';
    }
    
    	
    void TicTac::display_grid()
    {
    	int spacer;
    
    	if(turn==1)
    		spacer = 20;	
    	else 
    		spacer = 39;
    
    
    	system("cls");
    
    	if(tie)
    
    		cout << "\a\n\n\t   *** Tie!!  No Winners!!  ***\n";
    
    	else if(check_winner())
    
    		cout << "\a\n\n\t   *** Player " << turn << " weeens! ***\n";
    
    	else 
    	
    		cout << "\n\n\tPlayer 1 = X       Player 2 = O\n" << setw(spacer) << "------------";	
    		
    
    	cout << endl << endl << endl << endl;
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row++)
    	
    		cout << setw(25) << grid[row] << endl;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::prompt_player()
    {
    	cout << endl << endl << endl; 
    
    	cout << "\tPlayer " << turn << ", Enter a Square: ";	
    	cin  >> square;
    	cin.ignore(1000,'\n');
    
    	square=toupper(square);	
    	turn_counter++;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::update_grid()
    {
    	bool found = false;
    
    	for(int row=0;!found && row<5; row+=2)
    		for(int column=0;!found && column<5;column+=2)
    		{
    			if(grid[row][column]==square)
    			{
    				if(turn==1)				
    					grid[row][column]='X';
    
    				else 
    					grid[row][column]='O';
    
    				found=true;
    			}
    		}
    	
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::set_turn()
    {
    	if(!check_winner())
    	{
    		if(turn==1)
    		   turn= 2;	
    		else
    		   turn= 1;
    	}
    }
    
    
    bool TicTac::check_winner()
    {
    
    
    	//Row Check
    	for(int row=0; row<5; row+=2)
    	{
    		if(grid[row][0]==grid[row][2]&&grid[row][2]==grid[row][4])
    					
    			return true;		
    	}
    
    	//Column Check
    	for(column=0; column<5; column+=2)
    	{
    		if(grid[0][column]==grid[2][column]&&grid[2][column]==grid[4][column])
    					
    			return true;		
    	}
    
    
    	//Diag Check
    	if(  (grid[0][0]==grid[2][2]&&grid[2][2]==grid[4][4]) ||
    	     (grid[0][4]==grid[2][2]&&grid[2][2]==grid[4][0])   )
    				 
    			return true;
    	
    
    	//Tie Check
    	if(turn_counter==9)
    	{			
    		tie	 = true;
    		return true;
    	}
    
    	return false;
    }
    
    
    char again()
    {
    	char choice;
    	cout << "\n\n\n\tWould ye' like to try again? (Y/N): ";
    	cin  >> choice;
            cin.ignore(1000,'\n');
    	cout << endl << endl;
    
    	return toupper(choice);
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::reset()
    {
    	int square_number = '1';
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row+=2)
    		for(int column=0;column<5;column+=2)
    
    			grid[row][column]=square_number++;
    
    	turn   = 1;	
    	tie    = false;
    	turn_counter = 0;
    }
    Last edited by The Brain; 08-07-2005 at 03:40 PM.
    • "Problem Solving C++, The Object of Programming" -Walter Savitch
    • "Data Structures and Other Objects using C++" -Walter Savitch
    • "Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers" -Kip Irvine
    • "Programming Windows, 5th edition" -Charles Petzold
    • "Visual C++ MFC Programming by Example" -John E. Swanke
    • "Network Programming Windows" -Jones/Ohlund
    • "Sams Teach Yourself Game Programming in 24 Hours" -Michael Morrison
    • "Mathmatics for 3D Game Programming & Computer Graphics" -Eric Lengyel

  3. #3
    Registered User LiNeAr's Avatar
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    That's a bit too confusing for me, since I've been only learning for a little over a month. I haven't gotten to use classes that much, but I guess I should. I will look at classes, since it seems a lot more organized. Thanks for the code. I didn't expect for you to make the whole game.

  4. #4
    Toaster Zach L.'s Avatar
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    Aug 2001
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    2,686
    A short explanation with nothing additonal:

    First, remember that arrays are zero based (in all dimensions), so the valid indiced for:
    int array[3] are : array[0], array[1], and array[2]
    and for
    int grid[2][2] are : grid[0][0], grid[0][1], grid[1][0], and grid[1][1]

    So, to quickly go through one index of an array, you can use a counter variable in a for loop:
    Code:
    for(int i = 0; i != ARRAY_LEN; ++i)
       array[i] = ...;
    So, for a multidimensional array, you would have to nest loops (one for each dimension):
    Code:
    for(int i = 0; i != NUM_ROWS; ++i)
       for(int j = 0; j != NUM_COLS; ++j)
          grid[i][j] = ...;
    So that, at each value of i in the range [0, NUM_ROWS - 1], the nested loop executes, looping j from 0 to NUM_COLS - 1.

    Hope this clarifies things a little.

    Cheers
    The word rap as it applies to music is the result of a peculiar phonological rule which has stripped the word of its initial voiceless velar stop.

  5. #5
    Registered User LiNeAr's Avatar
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    Yeah that helps, thanks.

  6. #6
    VA National Guard The Brain's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2004
    Location
    Manassas, VA USA
    Posts
    903
    I didn't expect for you to make the whole game.
    i made this game like 3 months ago.. just offering my way of doing things. maybe you could learn something or ask questions or make suggestions or something.

    learn == good
    • "Problem Solving C++, The Object of Programming" -Walter Savitch
    • "Data Structures and Other Objects using C++" -Walter Savitch
    • "Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers" -Kip Irvine
    • "Programming Windows, 5th edition" -Charles Petzold
    • "Visual C++ MFC Programming by Example" -John E. Swanke
    • "Network Programming Windows" -Jones/Ohlund
    • "Sams Teach Yourself Game Programming in 24 Hours" -Michael Morrison
    • "Mathmatics for 3D Game Programming & Computer Graphics" -Eric Lengyel

  7. #7
    Super Moderater.
    Join Date
    Jan 2005
    Posts
    374
    Code:
    #include<iostream>
    #include<cstdlib>
    #include<iomanip>
    #include<cctype>
    using namespace std;
    
    
    class TicTac
    {
    
    public:
    
    	TicTac();
    	void load_grid();
    	void display_grid();
    	void prompt_player();
    	void update_grid();	
    	void set_turn();
    	bool check_winner();
    	void reset();
    
    private:
    
    	char grid[5][6];
    	char square;
    	int  turn;	
    	int  turn_counter;
    	bool tie;
    };
    
    
    char again();
    
    int main()
    {
    	TicTac Toe;
    
    	Toe.load_grid();
    
    	do{
    		Toe.reset();		
    
    		Toe.display_grid();
    
    		do{	
    			Toe.prompt_player();			
    	
    			Toe.update_grid();	
    			
    			Toe.set_turn();
    
    			Toe.display_grid();			
    
    		}while(!Toe.check_winner());	 
    
    	}while(again()!='N');
    
    	return 0;
    }
    
    
    
    //FUNCTION DEFINITIONS
    
    TicTac::TicTac()
    {
    	for(int row=0; row<5; row++)
    		for(int column=0; column<5; column++)
    
    			grid[row][column]='0';
    
    	turn	= 1;
    	tie     = 0;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::load_grid()
    {
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row+=2)
    	
    		grid[row][1]=grid[row][3]=(char)179;
    
    	for(int row=1;row<4;row+=2) //<--------forgot int
    
    		grid[row][0]=grid[row][1]=grid[row][2]=grid[row][3]=grid[row][4]=(char)196;
    
    	for(int row=0;row<6;row++)  //<----forgot int
    
    		grid[row][5]='\0';
    }
    
    	
    void TicTac::display_grid()
    {
    	int spacer;
    
    	if(turn==1)
    		spacer = 20;	
    	else 
    		spacer = 39;
    
    
    	system("cls");
    
    	if(tie)
    
    		cout << "\a\n\n\t   *** Tie!!  No Winners!!  ***\n";
    
    	else if(check_winner())
    
    		cout << "\a\n\n\t   *** Player " << turn << " weeens! ***\n";
    
    	else 
    	
    		cout << "\n\n\tPlayer 1 = X       Player 2 = O\n" << setw(spacer) << "------------";	
    		
    
    	cout << endl << endl << endl << endl;
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row++)
    	
    		cout << setw(25) << grid[row] << endl;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::prompt_player()
    {
    	cout << endl << endl << endl; 
    
    	cout << "\tPlayer " << turn << ", Enter a Square: ";	
    	cin  >> square;
    	cin.ignore(1000,'\n');
    
    	square=toupper(square);	
    	turn_counter++;
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::update_grid()
    {
    	bool found = false;
    
    	for(int row=0;!found && row<5; row+=2)
    		for(int column=0;!found && column<5;column+=2)
    		{
    			if(grid[row][column]==square)
    			{
    				if(turn==1)				
    					grid[row][column]='X';
    
    				else 
    					grid[row][column]='O';
    
    				found=true;
    			}
    		}
    	
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::set_turn()
    {
    	if(!check_winner())
    	{
    		if(turn==1)
    		   turn= 2;	
    		else
    		   turn= 1;
    	}
    }
    
    
    bool TicTac::check_winner()
    {
    
    
    	//Row Check
    	for(int row=0; row<5; row+=2)
    	{
    		if(grid[row][0]==grid[row][2]&&grid[row][2]==grid[row][4])
    					
    			return true;		
    	}
    
    	//Column Check
    	for(int column=0; column<5; column+=2)  // <-----------forgot int
    	{
    		if(grid[0][column]==grid[2][column]&&grid[2][column]==grid[4][column])
    					
    			return true;		
    	}
    
    
    	//Diag Check
    	if(  (grid[0][0]==grid[2][2]&&grid[2][2]==grid[4][4]) ||
    	     (grid[0][4]==grid[2][2]&&grid[2][2]==grid[4][0])   )
    				 
    			return true;
    	
    
    	//Tie Check
    	if(turn_counter==9)
    	{			
    		tie	 = true;
    		return true;
    	}
    
    	return false;
    }
    
    
    char again()
    {
    	char choice;
    	cout << "\n\n\n\tWould ye' like to try again? (Y/N): ";
    	cin  >> choice;
            cin.ignore(1000,'\n');
    	cout << endl << endl;
    
    	return toupper(choice);
    }
    
    
    void TicTac::reset()
    {
    	int square_number = '1';
    
    	for(int row=0;row<5;row+=2)
    		for(int column=0;column<5;column+=2)
    
    			grid[row][column]=square_number++;
    
    	turn   = 1;	
    	tie    = false;
    	turn_counter = 0;
    }
    Also you're missing a check repeat.

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