why do I get screen flicker?

This is a discussion on why do I get screen flicker? within the C++ Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hi people. Can anyone figure out why I get screen flicker when I try to run this code? Code: #include ...

  1. #1
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
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    11

    why do I get screen flicker?

    Hi people.

    Can anyone figure out why I get screen flicker when I try to run this code?

    Code:
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <math.h>
    #include <GL/glut.h>
    
    #define PIXEL_CENTER(x) ((long)(x) + 0.5)
    
    void GLAleft();
    void GLAright();
    void GLAup();
    void GLAdown();
    void GLAzoomin();
    void GLAzoomout();
    void drawmountain();
    void drawmoon();
    void drawstar();
    void drawstarpt();
    void drawbox();
    void drawcart_box();
    void drawcart_wheel();
    void drawcart_guy();
    void drawcart_arm();
    void drawcart_gum();
    
    GLenum rgb, doubleBuffer, windType;
    GLint windW, windH;
    const float pi = 3.14159265;
    GLint boxW, boxH;
    float color[3];
    int frame;
    int numframes = 20;
    float GLAparams[9]= {0,0,5, 0,0,0, 0,1,0};
    float bezierpts[12] = {-50, 0, 0,  -50, 4, 0,  50, 0, 0,  50, -2, 0};
    
    // Initialize OpenGL window - prepare the frame-buffer for z-buffering.
    static void glInit ()
    {
        // Clear color
        glPushAttrib(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
        glColorMask(1, 1, 1, 1);
        glIndexMask(~0);
        glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
        glPopAttrib();
    
       // Enable Depth testing
        glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
        glClear(GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    }
    
    // Function that gets called when the window is resized.
    static void Reshape(int width, int height)
    {
        // Define window size.
        windW = (GLint)width;
        windH = (GLint)height;
    
        // Viewport mapping 
        glViewport(0, 0, windW, windH);
        
        // Define a perspective projection with a 45 degree field of view
        // and looking from the the positive z axis at (0,0,10) towards the origin.
        glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
        glLoadIdentity();
        //glFrustum(-10.0, 10.0, -10.0, 10.0, 1.0, 20.0);	// Alternate method of specifying viewing paramters.
        gluPerspective (45.0, 1.0, 1.0, 20.0);
        gluLookAt (	GLAparams[0],
    		GLAparams[1],
    		GLAparams[2],
    		GLAparams[3],
    		GLAparams[4],
    		GLAparams[5],
    		GLAparams[6],
    		GLAparams[7],
    		GLAparams[8]);//,0.0, 0.0, 4.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0);
        
        // Switch matrix stack to modelview stack.
        glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);
    }
    
    void drawmountain(void)//Draws a snow-capped gray mountain.
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);//Mountain itself
    		glColor3f(0.4, 0.4, 0.4);
    		glVertex3f(-2, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(0, 5, 0);
    		glVertex3f(2, 0, 0);
    	glEnd();
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(0.4, 0.4, 0.4);
    		glVertex3f(2, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(0, 0, -2);
    		glVertex3f(0, 5, 0);
    	glEnd();
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(0.4, 0.4, 0.4);
    		glVertex3f(-2, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(0, 0, -2);
    		glVertex3f(0, 5, 0);
    	glEnd();
    
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);//Snow-capped peak
    		glColor3f(0.8, 0.8, 0.8);
    		glVertex3f(0, 5, 0.01);
    		glVertex3f(-.5, 3.75, 0.01);
    		glVertex3f(.5, 3.75,0.01);
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    void drawmoon()//draws a slightly yellow moon;
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);//yellow portion of moon
    		glColor3f(1, 1, 0.4);
    		GLUquadricObj * x;
    		x = gluNewQuadric();
    		gluSphere(x, 1, 100, 100);
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    void drawstar()//draws a four pointed white star
    {
    	drawstarpt();
    	glRotatef(90, 0, 0, 1);
    	drawstarpt();
    	glRotatef(90, 0, 0, 1);
    	drawstarpt();
    	glRotatef(90, 0, 0, 1);
    	drawstarpt();
    }
    
    void drawstarpt()//helper function for drawstar, draws one of four points for a star
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(1,1,1);
    		glVertex3f(0, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(1, 1, 0);
    		glVertex3f(0, 6, 0);
    		glVertex3f(-1, 1, 0);
    	glEnd();
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(1,1,1);
    		glVertex3f(0, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(1, 1, 1);
    		glVertex3f(1, 1, 0);
    	glEnd();
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(1,1,1);
    		glVertex3f(1, 1, 0);
    		glVertex3f(1, 1, 1);
    		glVertex3f(0, 6, 0);
    	glEnd();
    
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(1,1,1);
    		glVertex3f(0, 0, 0);
    		glVertex3f(-1, 1, 1);
    		glVertex3f(-1, 1, 0);
    	glEnd();
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(1,1,1);
    		glVertex3f(-1, 1, 0);
    		glVertex3f(-1, 1, 1);
    		glVertex3f(0, 6, 0);
    	glEnd();	
    }
    
    void drawbox (void)//mod of provided drawbox, box is all red.
    {
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, 0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    
       glBegin (GL_POLYGON);
            glColor3f (1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (-0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, 0.5, -0.5);
    	glVertex3f (0.5, -0.5, -0.5);
       glEnd ();	
    }
    
    void drawcart_box()
    {
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(1.5, 0.7, 1);
    		drawbox();
    	glPopMatrix();
    }
    
    void drawcart_wheel()//draws one of the cart's wheels
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(.5, .5, .5);
    		GLUquadricObj * x;
    		x = gluNewQuadric();
    		gluCylinder(x, 1, 1, .5, 100, 100);
    
    		glPushMatrix();
    			glRotatef(90,0,0,1);
    			glScalef(.1, 1.8, .1);
    			drawbox();
    		glPopMatrix();
    
    		glPushMatrix();
    			glScalef(.1, 1.8, .1);
    			drawbox();
    		glPopMatrix();
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    void drawcart_guy()
    {	
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);//draw the guy's shoulders/head
    		glColor3f(1, 0.8, 0.7);
    		GLUquadricObj * x;
    		x = gluNewQuadric();
    		gluSphere(x, 1, 100, 100);
    		
    		glPushMatrix();
    			glColor3f(.2, 1, .1);
    			glTranslatef(0, -1, 0);
    			glScalef(2.1, .8, .3);
    			gluSphere(x, 1, 100, 100);
    		//glPopMatrix(); //forgot this, bugB
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    void drawcart_arm()
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		glColor3f(.1, 1.8, .1);
    		GLUquadricObj * x;
    		x = gluNewQuadric();
    		gluCylinder(x,.1, .1, 1, 10,10);
    		
    		glPushMatrix();
    			glColor3f(1, .8, .7);
    			glTranslatef(0, 0, 1);
    			gluSphere(x, .2, 10, 10);
    		glPopMatrix();
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    void drawcart_gum()
    {
    	glBegin(GL_POLYGON);
    		GLUquadricObj * x;
    		x = gluNewQuadric();
    		glColor3f(1, 0, .5);
    		gluSphere(x, 1, 10, 10);
    	glEnd();
    }
    
    // Draws the scene at any point in time.
    static void Draw(void)
    {
        // Clear color and depth buffers
        glClear (GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
        glLoadIdentity ();
        gluLookAt (	GLAparams[0],
    		GLAparams[1],
    		GLAparams[2],
    		GLAparams[3],
    		GLAparams[4],
    		GLAparams[5],
    		GLAparams[6],
    		GLAparams[7],
    		GLAparams[8]);
    
        glPushMatrix();//Background drawing
    	glTranslatef(5, 5, -10);
    	drawmoon();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(-30, 40, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(-70, 30, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(120, 20, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(-130, 100, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(60, 75, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glScalef(.03,.03,.03);
    	glTranslatef(-50, 120, -10);
    	drawstar();
        glPopMatrix();
        glPushMatrix();
    	glTranslatef(-5,-3 ,-5);
    	drawmountain();
        glPopMatrix();//stars moon and mountain drawn
    
    
        glPushMatrix ();//main cart drawing code, assembles pieces
    	//translation code here
    	drawcart_box();
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(.2, .2, .2);
    		glTranslatef(-2, -1.4, 2.8);
    		glRotatef(frame*360. / numframes, 0, 0, 1);
    		drawcart_wheel();
    	glPopMatrix();
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(.2, .2, .2);
    		glTranslatef(2, -1.4, 2.8);
    		glRotatef(frame*360. / numframes, 0, 0, 1);
    		drawcart_wheel();
    	glPopMatrix();
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(.2, .2, .2);
    		glTranslatef(-2, -1.4, -3.2);
    		glRotatef(frame*360. / numframes, 0, 0, 1);
    		drawcart_wheel();
    	glPopMatrix();
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(.2, .2, .2);
    		glTranslatef(2, -1.4, -3.2);
    		glRotatef(frame*360. / numframes, 0, 0, 1);
    		drawcart_wheel();
    	glPopMatrix();//box of cart and wheels drawn and moving
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(.17, .17, .17);
    		glTranslatef(0, 3, 0);
    		drawcart_guy();
    	glPopMatrix();//guys bust drawn
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef( (float) frame / numframes,
                              (float) frame / numframes,
                              (float) frame / numframes );
    		glTranslatef(0, .5, 1.2+(.9* (float) frame / numframes) );
    		drawcart_gum();
    	glPopMatrix();//gum is drawn and scaling;
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(2, 2, 2);
    		glTranslatef(1.45, -1 + (.2*sin(8*pi*frame / numframes)), 0);
    		glRotatef(270, 1, 0, 0);
    		drawcart_arm();
    	glPopMatrix();
    	glPushMatrix();
    		glScalef(2, 2, 2);
    		glTranslatef(-1.45, -1 + (.2*sin(8*pi*frame / numframes)), 0);
    		glRotatef(270, 1, 0, 0);
    		drawcart_arm();
    	glPopMatrix();
    	glPopMatrix();//fixB
        glPopMatrix ();//all drawn and animated
    
        glFlush();
    
        // Increment the rotation angle
        frame += 1.0;
        if (frame == numframes) frame = 0.0;
    
        if (doubleBuffer) {
    	glutSwapBuffers();
        }
    }
    
    // Called when a keyboard key is pressed
    static void Key(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
    {
    
        switch (key) {
          case 27:
    	printf ("exit!\n");
    	exit(1);
    
          default:
    	return;
        }
    
        glutPostRedisplay();
    }
    
    // Called when special keys are pressed - arrows and page-up/down
    static void SpecialKey(int key, int x, int y)
    {
    
        switch (key) {
        case GLUT_KEY_PAGE_UP: /* PAGE UP key pressed  */
        {
        	GLAzoomin();
    	break;
        }
        case GLUT_KEY_PAGE_DOWN: /* PAGE DOWN key pressed  */
        {
    	GLAzoomout();
    	break;
        }
        case GLUT_KEY_UP: /* Up arrow pressed */
        {
    	GLAup();
    	break;
        }
        case GLUT_KEY_DOWN: /* Down arrow pressed  */
        {
        	GLAdown();
    	break;
        }
        case GLUT_KEY_LEFT: /* Left arrow pressed  */
        {
        	GLAleft();
    	break;
        }
        case GLUT_KEY_RIGHT: /* Right arrow pressed  */
        {
     	GLAright();
        	break;
        }
        default:
            return;
        }
    
        glutPostRedisplay();
    }
    
    // Read input.
    static GLenum Args(int argc, char **argv)
    {
        GLint i, inputfile_count;
    
        rgb = GL_TRUE;
        doubleBuffer = GL_TRUE;
        inputfile_count = 0;
    
        for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
    	if (strcmp(argv[i], "-ci") == 0) {
    	    rgb = GL_FALSE;
    	} else if (strcmp(argv[i], "-rgb") == 0) {
    	    rgb = GL_TRUE;
    	} else if (strcmp(argv[i], "-sb") == 0) {
    	    doubleBuffer = GL_FALSE;
    	} else if (strcmp(argv[i], "-db") == 0) {
    	    doubleBuffer = GL_TRUE;
    	} 
    	else {
    	    //printf("%s (Bad option).\n", argv[i]);
    	    //return GL_FALSE;
    	} 
        }
        return GL_TRUE;
    }
    
    int main(int argc, char **argv)
    {
        glutInit(&argc, argv);
    
        if (Args(argc, argv) == GL_FALSE) {
    	exit(1);
        }
    
        // Initialize window size.
        windW = 512;
        windH = 512;
        glutInitWindowPosition(0, 0); glutInitWindowSize( windW, windH);
    
        // Enable frame buffer for double buffering and z-buffering.
        windType = (rgb) ? GLUT_RGB : GLUT_INDEX;
        windType |= (doubleBuffer) ? GLUT_DOUBLE : GLUT_SINGLE;
        glutInitDisplayMode(windType | GLUT_DEPTH);
    
        if (glutCreateWindow("Sample Animation") == GL_FALSE) {
    	exit(1);
        }
    
        frame = 0.0;		// Initialize frame to 0.0
        glInit ();			
        glutReshapeFunc(Reshape);	// Set reshape function
        glutIdleFunc(Draw);   	// Even if no events, redraw to animate
        glutKeyboardFunc(Key);	// Set keyboard function
        glutSpecialFunc(SpecialKey);   // Set special keyboard function (arrow keys)
        glutDisplayFunc(Draw);	// Set Display function
        glutMainLoop();
        return 0;
    }
    
    void GLAleft()//rotates camera left
    {
    	float magnitude = GLAparams[0] * GLAparams[0]  +
    			  GLAparams[2] * GLAparams[2];
    	magnitude = sqrt(magnitude);
    	float angle = asin(GLAparams[0] / magnitude);
    	angle = angle - (pi / 32);
    	GLAparams[0] = sin(angle) * magnitude;
    	GLAparams[2] = cos(angle) * magnitude;
    }
    void GLAright()//roatates camera right
    {
    	float magnitude = GLAparams[0] * GLAparams[0]  +
    			  GLAparams[2] * GLAparams[2];
    	magnitude = sqrt(magnitude);
    	float angle = asin(GLAparams[0] / magnitude);
    	angle = angle + (pi / 32);
    	GLAparams[0] = sin(angle) * magnitude;
    	GLAparams[2] = cos(angle) * magnitude;
    }
    void GLAup()//rotates camera up
    {
    	float magnitude = GLAparams[1] * GLAparams[1]  +
    			  GLAparams[2] * GLAparams[2];
    	magnitude = sqrt(magnitude);
    	float angle = asin(GLAparams[1] / magnitude);
    	angle = angle + (pi / 32.);
    	if (angle <= (pi/2.) - .1)
    	{
    		GLAparams[1] = sin(angle) * magnitude;
    		GLAparams[2] = cos(angle) * magnitude;
    	}
    }
    void GLAdown()//rotates camera down
    {
    
    	float magnitude = GLAparams[1] * GLAparams[1]  +
    			  GLAparams[2] * GLAparams[2];
    	magnitude = sqrt(magnitude);
    	float angle = asin(GLAparams[1] / magnitude);
    	angle = angle - (pi / 32.);
    	if (angle >= -1*((pi/2.) - .1))
    	{
    		GLAparams[1] = sin(angle) * magnitude;
    		GLAparams[2] = cos(angle) * magnitude;
    	}
    }
    void GLAzoomin()//zooms in
    {
    	GLAparams[0]=GLAparams[0] / 2.0;
    	GLAparams[1]=GLAparams[1] / 2.0;
    	GLAparams[2]=GLAparams[2] / 2.0;
    }
    void GLAzoomout()//zooms out
    {
    	GLAparams[0]=GLAparams[0] * 2.0;
    	GLAparams[1]=GLAparams[1] * 2.0;
    	GLAparams[2]=GLAparams[2] * 2.0;
    }

  2. #2
    Malum in se abachler's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Posts
    3,189
    Are you drawing to the back buffer and waiting for vertical sync?

    Sorry, not gonna read 100 lines of code if you cant be bothered to just post the relevant portion.
    Until you can build a working general purpose reprogrammable computer out of basic components from radio shack, you are not fit to call yourself a programmer in my presence. This is cwhizard, signing off.

  3. #3
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Oct 2006
    Posts
    250
    Are you sure that double buffering is enabled, i.e. you did not pass the -sb flag and that the call to glutInitDisplayMode actually managed to crete a double buffered display?
    If so, is direct rendering enabled on your system, or are you using a software renderer?

  4. #4
    Registered User
    Join Date
    Nov 2009
    Posts
    82
    Remove the condition around the double buffer, let it be active regardless of any flags (which you're more than likely not passing as mentioned).

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