- An optional minimum field width. If the converted value has fewer bytes than the field width, it shall be padded with spaces by default on the left
; it shall be padded on the right if the left-adjustment flag ( '-' ), described below, is given to the field width. The field width takes the form of an asterisk ( '*' ), described below, or a decimal integer.
- An optional precision that gives the minimum number of digits to appear for the d, i, o, u, x, and X conversion specifiers; the number of digits to appear after the radix character for the a, A, e, E, f, and F conversion specifiers
; the maximum number of significant digits for the g and G conversion specifiers; or the maximum number of bytes to be printed from a string in the s [XSI] [Option Start] and S [Option End] conversion specifiers. The precision takes the form of a period ( '.' ) followed either by an asterisk ( '*' ), described below, or an optional decimal digit string, where a null digit string is treated as zero. If a precision appears with any other conversion specifier, the behavior is undefined.