Reading char as integer.

This is a discussion on Reading char as integer. within the C Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hi. I want to read a matrix of 8-bit integers, in the range -127-to-128, into my program for further processing. ...

  1. #1
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    Reading char as integer.

    Hi.
    I want to read a matrix of 8-bit integers, in the range -127-to-128, into my program for further processing.

    My code looks like like this:

    Code:
    signed char* getdata(int rows, int columns){
    	FILE* InFile;
    	int n; 
    	int elements = 0; 
    	int siz = rows * columns;
    	int i = 0;
    	signed char* DataMatrix;
    
    	InFile = fopen("DWTinput.txt", "r");
    	DataMatrix = malloc(sizeof(char) * siz);
    	//Read matrix into array:
    	for(i = 0; i < siz; i++){
    		n = fscanf(InFile, "%c", &DataMatrix[i]); 		elements += n;
    	}
    	//Check if number of elements is correct:
    	if(elements != (siz)){
    		fprintf(stderr, "Mismatch in number of elements. Number was supposed to be %d, but is %d.", siz, elements);
    		goto error;
    	}
    	//Print matrix:
    	for(i = 0; i < siz; i++){
    		printf("%i ", DataMatrix[i]);
    	}
     
    	fclose(InFile);
    	return DataMatrix;
    
    error:
    	return NULL;
    }
    When I print the matrix, I print the ascii values.

    How can I print the integer values?

    Is it actually a good idea to use the 'char' datatype for processing integers (I should tell that I use the 'char' datatype to save memory space...), or should I use 'short int' instead?

    Thanks,

    Esben.

  2. #2
    Devil's Advocate SlyMaelstrom's Avatar
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    When I print the matrix, I print the ascii values.

    How can I print the integer values?
    Those are one in the same. I'm not quite sure what you expect to print. Keep in mind, all of your standard characters are within the range of 0-128. Beyond that are your extended ascii codes, which can vary from computer to computer.

    Whether or not you want to use characters to process 1 byte integers is really up to you. I wouldn't recommend it as it can be confusing to others viewing your code. Plus, in the modern age, you really don't need to be concerned too greatly with a few bytes of memory.
    Sent from my iPadŽ

  3. #3
    Frequently Quite Prolix dwks's Avatar
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    When I print the matrix, I print the ascii values.

    How can I print the integer values?
    You mean, "How can I print 0 instead of 48?": http://faq.cprogramming.com/cgi-bin/...&id=1043284385 : Option 1.

    Hint: subtract '0'.
    dwk

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    Is it actually a good idea to use the 'char' datatype for processing integers (I should tell that I use the 'char' datatype to save memory space...), or should I use 'short int' instead?
    Short int is generally 2 bytes, while char is always 1. A regular int is usually 4 bytes.

    Saving memmory by using smaller integer sizes is up to you. Generally, such optimisation will not save you much.
    It is too clear and so it is hard to see.
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  5. #5
    Frequently Quite Prolix dwks's Avatar
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    Short int is generally 2 bytes, while char is always 1. A regular int is usually 4 bytes.
    If you want to have a variable that's at least 4 bytes, use a long.

    And yes, sizeof(char) is always 1, so you can leave it out.
    dwk

    Seek and ye shall find. quaere et invenies.

    "Simplicity does not precede complexity, but follows it." -- Alan Perlis
    "Testing can only prove the presence of bugs, not their absence." -- Edsger Dijkstra
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  6. #6
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    Quote Originally Posted by dwks
    If you want to have a variable that's at least 4 bytes, use a long.
    Yes, but int is also generally 4 bytes.
    It is too clear and so it is hard to see.
    A dunce once searched for fire with a lighted lantern.
    Had he known what fire was,
    He could have cooked his rice much sooner.

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    Hi! Thanks for your replies.
    The reason why I wanna use as small a datatype as posible preferably char, is that I need to read in a 512x512 8 bits/pxl image into a 1024KByte L2 cache.

    By using the int datatype I use 512*512*4 = 1048Kbyte. Therefore the problem.

    Esben.

  8. #8
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    You could cast it.

    Code:
    printf("%d ", (int) DataMatrix[i]);
    Or something along those lines.

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    Oh!
    I just think I realized something:

    If I wanna read in the number '-100' as a char, it will actually be read as 4 chars:

    32, 49, 48, 48,

    and there goes the memory savings... Right?

  10. #10
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    correction to the above:

    '-100' would be read as 45, 49, 48, 48...right?

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    Ok, more question:
    1)
    I read the array of numbers -49 -16 -67 - 80 as short integers.
    When I output them again, I write: -49 -1 - 16 -1 -67 -1 -80 -1

    Why is this?

    2)
    I tried processing the 2 above arrays in my program in the hope that the '-1's would somehow be ignored. But the the 2 outcomes of the processings were complete different. There is something basic I dont get here. Can anyone tell me what it is?

    Esben.

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    Ok...seems I'm too quick to ask you guys advice here. At least I fount that in the following read

    fscanf(InFile, "%hi", &DataMatrix[i]);

    I should remember the 'h' in the modifier, when reading a short int.

  13. #13
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    What code are you using to read the ints?
    Code:
    #include <stdio.h>
    
    void J(char*a){int f,i=0,c='1';for(;a[i]!='0';++i)if(i==81){
    puts(a);return;}for(;c<='9';++c){for(f=0;f<9;++f)if(a[i-i%27+i%9
    /3*3+f/3*9+f%3]==c||a[i%9+f*9]==c||a[i-i%9+f]==c)goto e;a[i]=c;J(a);a[i]
    ='0';e:;}}int main(int c,char**v){int t=0;if(c>1){for(;v[1][
    t];++t);if(t==81){J(v[1]);return 0;}}puts("sudoku [0-9]{81}");return 1;}

  14. #14
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    Its a doddle.

    printf("%d ", DataMatrix[i]);

  15. #15
    Just Lurking Dave_Sinkula's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by esben
    I want to read a matrix of 8-bit integers, in the range -127-to-128, into my program for further processing.

    When I print the matrix, I print the ascii values.

    How can I print the integer values?

    Is it actually a good idea to use the 'char' datatype for processing integers (I should tell that I use the 'char' datatype to save memory space...), or should I use 'short int' instead?
    I don't think I fully follow, but here's what I think I understand:
    • You have a text file of numbers whose values are between -127 and 128*. Something like this:
      -10 -5 -4 42
      1 2 3 4
      100 -125 0 4
      -1 -1 5 9
      *If you meant -128 to 127, a char will do nicely on most common systems. If indeed you meant what you said, then you may need a bigger integer type to accomodate the 128.
    • You want to read the data into a dynamically allocated array.
    • You want to print out the value of the data contained in the char (as a small integer, not as a character).
    My rendition of this in code is something like this.
    Code:
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    
    char **ctor(int rows, int cols);
    char **read(FILE *file, char **array, int rows, int cols);
    void   show(char **array, int rows, int cols);
    void   dtor(char **array, int rows);
    
    int main()
    {
       static const char filename[] = "file.txt";
       FILE *file = fopen(filename, "r");
       if ( file != NULL )
       {
          int rows = 4, cols = 4;
          char **data = ctor(rows, cols);
          if ( data != NULL )
          {
             if ( read(file, data, rows, cols) != NULL )
             {
                show(data, rows, cols);
                dtor(data, rows);
             }
          }
          fclose(file);
       }
       else
       {
          perror(filename);
       }
    
       return 0;
    }
    
    char **ctor(int rows, int cols)
    {
       int r;
       char **array = malloc(rows * sizeof *array);
       if ( array != NULL )
       {
          for ( r = 0; r < rows; ++r )
          {
             array[r] = malloc(cols * sizeof *array[r]);
             if ( array[r] == NULL )
             {
                while ( --r >= 0)
                {
                   free(array[r]);
                }
                free(array);
                return NULL;
             }
          }
       }
       return array;
    }
    
    char **read(FILE *file, char **array, int rows, int cols)
    {
       int r, c;
       for ( r = 0; r < rows; ++r )
       {
          for ( c = 0; c < cols; ++c )
          {
             int value;
             if ( fscanf(file, "%d", &value) != 1 )
             {
                return NULL;
             }
             array[r][c] = value;
          }
       }
       return array;
    }
    
    void show(char **array, int rows, int cols)
    {
       int r, c;
       for ( r = 0; r < rows; ++r )
       {
          for ( c = 0; c < cols; ++c )
          {
             printf("%4d ", array[r][c]);
          }
          putchar('\n');
       }
       putchar('\n');
    }
    
    void dtor(char **array, int rows)
    {
       int r;
       for ( r = 0; r < rows; ++r )
       {
          free(array[r]);
       }
       free(array);
    }
    
    /* file.txt
    -10 -5 -4 42
    1 2 3 4
    100 -125 0 4
    -1 -1 5 9
    */
    
    /* my output
     -10   -5   -4   42 
       1    2    3    4 
     100 -125    0    4 
      -1   -1    5    9 
    */
    Now, can you clarify any issues that we may not be understanding?
    7. It is easier to write an incorrect program than understand a correct one.
    40. There are two ways to write error-free programs; only the third one works.*

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