Lempel-Ziv '77 (LZ77)

This is a discussion on Lempel-Ziv '77 (LZ77) within the C Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hello, Well, it's been a boring start to the easter holidays for me, so I thought I'd learn me a ...

  1. #1
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    Question Lempel-Ziv '77 (LZ77)

    Hello,

    Well, it's been a boring start to the easter holidays for me, so I thought I'd learn me a new l33t skill:- data compression. Having messed around with RLE lots in the past, and touched upon Huffman compression, I decided to look at what is arguably at the core of all modern data compression standards:- LZ77. An oldie but a goodie?

    The way this program works is thus: It check the input data against a buffer of previous unique input data to see if there's a match. If there is, it writes a 16-bit code to the output file with this format:-
    Code:
    1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
    | \_____________/ \___________/
    Flag   Offset        Length
    The flag indicates compressed data, the offset is 8 bits and the length of the uncompressed data 7 bits. Of course, if there isn't a match, it'll just output 16 zero bits and then the uncompressed data, which is a bit of a waste, but I'm not getting into bit streams just right now...

    Anyway, I don't think I've got the concept of the "sliding window" right, in that I haven't defined a size or anything. This deffo works for short text files, but probably not for anything else just yet. Could anyone who's poked around this algorithm before give me some tips?
    Code:
    #include <stdio.h>
    
    int main(int argc, char *argv[])
    {
    	int iFlag, iDecompress = 0, iFileArg = 1, i, iLimit;
    	unsigned char *buffer, *bcursor, *window, *wcursor, *wsearch;
    	unsigned long ulSize;
    	unsigned short usHeader;
    	FILE *in, *out;
    
    	if (argc < 2 || argc > 3)
    		return -1;
    
    	if (strcmp(argv[1], "-d") == 0)
    	{
    		iDecompress = 1;
    		iFileArg = 2;
    	}
    
    	in = fopen(argv[iFileArg], "rb");
    	fseek(in, 0, SEEK_END);
    	ulSize = ftell(in);
    	fseek(in, 0, SEEK_SET);
    	buffer = malloc(ulSize);
    	bcursor = buffer;
    	window = malloc(ulSize);
    	wcursor = window;
    	fread(buffer, ulSize, 1, in);
    	fclose(in);
    	if (iDecompress)
    	{
    		sprintf(argv[iFileArg] + strlen(argv[iFileArg]) - 3, "doc");
    		out = fopen(argv[iFileArg], "wb");
    		while (bcursor - buffer < ulSize)
    		{
    			usHeader = *(unsigned short *)bcursor;
    			bcursor += 2;
    			if (usHeader & 0x8000)
    			{
    				wsearch = window + ((usHeader & 0x7F80) >> 7);
    				fwrite(wsearch, usHeader & 0x7F, 1, out);
    			}
    			else
    			{
    				putc(*bcursor, out);
    				*(wcursor++) = *(bcursor++);
    			}
    
    		}
    
    	}
    	else
    	{
    		sprintf(argv[iFileArg] + strlen(argv[iFileArg]) - 3, "lz7");
    		out = fopen(argv[iFileArg], "wb");
    		while (bcursor - buffer < ulSize)
    		{
    			iFlag = 0;
    			iLimit = wcursor - window;
    			if (iLimit > 2)
    			{
    				if (iLimit > 128)
    					iLimit = 128;
    
    				for (i=3;i<iLimit;i++)
    				{
    					for (wsearch=window;wsearch<=wcursor;wsearch++)
    					{
    						if ((wcursor - wsearch) < i)
    							break;
    
    						if (memcmp(wsearch, bcursor, i) == 0)
    						{
    							iFlag = 1;
    							usHeader = (unsigned short)0x8000 | ((wsearch - window) << 7) | i;
    							fwrite(&usHeader, sizeof(usHeader), 1, out);
    							bcursor += i;
    							break;
    						}
    
    					}
    
    				}
    
    			}
    
    			if (!iFlag)
    			{
    				usHeader = 0;
    				fwrite(&usHeader, sizeof(usHeader), 1, out);
    				putc(*bcursor, out);
    				*(wcursor++) = *(bcursor++);
    			}
    
    		}
    
    	}
    
    	free(window);
    	free(buffer);
    	fclose(out);	
    	return 0;
    }

  2. #2
    ggs
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    the simplest improvement is to get rid of that 16 0-bits jobbie and just zero out the first byte (otherwise why set aside that flag bit?) and store the regular character in the second byte - but you can still do better than that for encoding your information ;o

    personally, i find it hard to read all that code lumped together in main(). you should write separate compression and decompression functions, maybe with some shared sliding-window code. that way others will be able to read it and you'll be able to use it again without tearing the code into bits and praying to the gods of cut n' paste
    .sect signature

  3. #3
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    I know it's a bit of a mess, I usually write functions and such, but this was supposed to be a quick lesson in what is a relatively simple concept (The optimization is the science of it). My bad.

    I suppose I could shorten an uncompressed header code to 8 bits, not perfect but progress.

  4. #4
    Registered User linuxdude's Avatar
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    [code]if (strcmp(argv[1], "-d") == 0)[code]
    if you truly are bored, you could think of this. What if the user inputed ./progname file -d
    If you want you can look up a func called getopt. it is for linux though

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