This is a discussion on reading math symbols within the A Brief History of Cprogramming.com forums, part of the Community Boards category; i've been reading Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra for a cryptology report. i have a basic highschool education in ...

i've been reading Elements of Abstract and Linear Algebra for a cryptology report.
i have a basic highschool education in algebra, geometry, and a little trig.

anyway i'm seeing lots of symbols i've never seen before.
i cant cut and paste them .

anyone know the names of these symbols or something i can use to find out more about them?

2. Most likely if you don't know what a symbol is you should take a class that covers that level of math.

3. take university level discrete math and linear algebra

4. the big funky E is the summation operator where you just add elements of an array together
the ~ means approximately equal to (i.e trying to assign a value to an irrational number)
the small e is the only number (rational or irrational, e is irrational) where the derivative of e^x is e^x (I think that's how it goes)

e is:
2.718281828459045235360287471352662497757247093699 95957

and those are the first 3 relevant symbols I could think of that might be in your book

5. What symbols specifically? Can you point me to a chapter at least?

6. A good number of the operators are described in the first pages of chapter 1.

7. logic and discrete mathematics - a computer science perspective, i read it in maths in the first of uni. I forget the author but its a good book

8. in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.
there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.
and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand.

9. Originally posted by Nor
in chapter one. page one. right after the header Sets.
there is an up side down 'u' and a right side up 'U'

also "{x: E A and x E B"} E being the symbol i dont understand.

a little more down (page 6) is an arrow pointing right.
and then a little circule used like multiplacation, at the bottom of that page.

these 5 symbols are used throught out the book and one only ones i dont understand.
upside down 'U' : think of it as an 'and'
rightside up 'U' : think of it as an 'or'
small 'E' : 'element of'
backwards 'E' : 'there exists'
upside down 'A': 'for all'
and the ' : 'not' (negation)

>> {x: E A and x E B"}

assuming the E's are small this means x is an element of A and x is an element of B.

if you want better descriptions, look up "set theory" or "set notation"

edit: edited stuff

10. thank you so very much.
also just found a book about the subject.
Schaum's Outline of Discrete Mathematics (amazon.com)
should be here within the next week
http://www.sosmath.com/algebra/inequ...02/ineq02.html
http://www.shu.edu/projects/reals/logic/notation.html